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Every Programmer Needs to Know These: Fundamentals of Programming

Every Programmer Needs to Know These: Fundamentals of Programming

It doesn't matter the programming language that you opt to learn. You must be familiar with all the fundamentals of programming.
At least eight main fundamentals of programming should be at your fingertips. They include.

• Basic Syntax

• Data types and structures

• Flow control structures

• Variables

• Functional Programming

• Object-oriented programming

• IDEs and the coding environment

• Debugging

Now lets us look at them one by one

*Basic Syntax *
Syntax is a set of rules that define the language's structure. In every programming language, there has to be syntax. One cannot be able to understand any programming language without understanding the fundamental syntax of the language you are learning.

Data types and structures
A data type is simply the classification of data that tells the interpreter how they intend to use the data.
These are the most common data types used by programmers.

  1. String – Holds a sequence of characters, i.e., "Hello World. "

  2. Boolean –Logical true or false data, i.e, true, false

  3. Integers – Reprints whole numbers i.e -5,0,123

  4. Arrays – Collects data of similar type

  5. Characters – use of symbols from a defined mapping of integral values to symbols.

Data structures, however, are a collection of data values. They include operations that can be applied to the data or the algorithms that will be applied. One has to choose the perfect data structure to use.

Data structures in programming are essential in organizing, managing, and sorting out the data that has been collected. They form the building blocks of a more appealing application to the end user.

Some of the common types of data structures include:

• Stacks

• Queue

• Linked lists

• Trees

• Heap

• Graph

Flow Control Structures

These commands allow a program to take whichever direction depending on the analysis of the variables. There are usually three control structures; sequential, selection, and repetition.
A sequential control structure in programming involves the release of code statements one after the other.

Decision or selection control structure, on the other hand, works under two properties. The first one, the computer decides what action to perform based on the result of a test or a condition. It can also work based on a condition equaling a true or false.

Alternatively, loops are considered one of the most robust fundamentals of programming. In loops, it allows a block code to run repeatedly until a specified condition is either termed as true or false.


Variables are simply containers used to store data. As a programmer, one must know how to declare a variable and create a variable.

During the declaration of a variable, two main things happen

-It tells the compiler what the variable name is

  • It also specifies the type of data the variable will hold

Functional Programming

This is simply creating clean and maintainable software by using pure functions.

Object Oriented Programming (OOP)

This is a programming paradigm that programmers use that is mainly based on methods and objects rather than functions and logic.

There are four main Principles that are to be followed by programmers using Object Oriented Programming ( OOP )

• Inheritance

• Polymorphism

• Abstraction

• Encapsulation

IDEs and the coding environment

An IDEs in full is Integrated Development Environment. These are applications that programmers use to write code. These applications increase a programmer's productivity by enabling you to do things like code highlighting, compilation, debugging, and so many more features. Hence it is considered fundamental in programming.

Some of the common IDEs used by programmers include

• Visual Studio Code

• Intelli IDEA

• Net Beans

• Eclipse

*Debugging *

This is simply removing errors in either hardware or software. Some of the Common debugging tools used are :

• Radar 2

• WWinDgb

• Valgrind